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When we first picked up a pen or pencil and started making marks on paper, we began with line. Whether self-taught, through trial and error, or guided by others, we learned how line defines form, creates structure, divides a frame, traces contour, creates tonal variation (cross-hatching, for example) and leads the eye from one part of a work to another. Initially a mechanism for getting outlines onto paper – identifying edges – we begin to applaud lines for their own merit: celebrate their presence…whether a quiet flick of charcoal on paper or a streak of graphite.
This wire drawing exercise ‘using line to create space’ is completed by students within a 3D Art class, working over photographic portraits. Having a base image to work from (this could also be an earlier observational drawing) makes the process of transferring from two-dimensional to three-dimensional much easier.
The angle that these techniques are applied may remain constant within a drawing, or it may change in response to the angle and direction of the forms. For example, cross-hatching may flow around the surface of an object in a similar direction as cross contour lines. These techniques are also a great way to create the illusion of texture (see our article about observational drawings).
Pop artist Andy Warhol is famous for his brightly coloured silkscreen artworks; however he was also a rampant drawer – often filling sketchbooks. He won many prizes for the drawings he produced in high school. The illustrations shown above – comprising of slightly smudged and blotchy black lines – have Warhol’s typical off-beat style. They were completed using a basic printmaking technique: pressing sheets of paper into a wet ink drawing, transferring the image to the second sheet.